Article Index


  1. Berg CP et al, “Human Mature Red Blood Cells Express Caspase-3 and Caspase-8, but are Devoid of Mitochondrial Regulators of Apoptosis,” Cell Death Differ 8, no. 12 (2001): 1197-1206.
  2. Montgomery R et al, Biochemistry: A Case-Oriented Approach 3rd ed. St. Louis: C.V. Mosby Co., 1980.
  3. Wu I-C et al, “Metabolic Analysis of  13C-labeled Pyruvate for Noninvasive Assessment of Mitochondrial Function,” Annals NY Acad Sci 1201 (2010): 111-120.
  4. Adam-Vizi V, Chinopoulos C, “Bioenergetics and the Formation of Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species,” Trends Pharmacol Sci.12 (2006): 639-45.
  5. Cadenas E, Davies KJ, “Mitochondrial Free Radical Generation, Oxidative Stress, and Aging,” Free Radic Biol Med. 29 no.3-4 (2000): 222-30.
  6. Lo M-C et al, “Glycoxidative Stress-induced Mitophagy Modulates Mitochondrial Fates,” Annals NY Acad Sci 1201 (2010): 1-7.
  7. Smith R, Murphy M, “Animal and Human Studies with the Mitochondrial-targeted Antioxidant MitoQ,” Annals NY Acad Sci 1201 (2010): 96-103.
  8. Wikipedia (2011). “Lactic acidosis.” Retrieved March 4, 2011.
  9. Hochachka PW, Mommsen TP, "Protons and anaerobiosis," Science 219 (1983): 1391–1397.
  10. Houten SM, Wanders RJA, “A General Introduction to the Biochemistry of Mitochondrial Fatty Acid β-oxidation,” J Inherit Metab Dis 33 (2010): 469-477.
  11. Foster DW, “The Role of the Carnitine System in Human Metabolism,” Annals NY Acad Sci 1033 (2004): 1-16.
  12. Berardo A et al, “A Diagnostic Algorithm for Metabolic Myopathies,” Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 10, No. 2 (2010): 118-126.
  13. Famularo G et al, “Carnitines and its Congeners,” Annals NY Acad Sci 1033 (2004): 132-138.
  14. Schulz H, “Regulation of Fatty Acid Oxidation in Heart,”. J Nutr 124 (1994): 165–171.
  15. Howell N, “Human Mitochondrial Diseases: Answering Questions and Questioning Answers, Int Rev Cytol 186 (1999): 49-116.
  16. Zeviani M, Antozzi C, “Defects of Mitochondrial DNA,” Brain Pathol 2 No. 2 (1992): 121-132.
  17. Chavis JC (2009). “Who Discovered the Mitochondria?” Retrieved March 13, 2011.
  18. Clay A et al, “Mitochondrial Disease,” Chest 120 (2001): 634-648.
  19. Wu C-L et al, “ Neuroprotective Mechanisms of Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor Against 3-Nitropropionic Acid Toxicity: Therapeutic Implications for Huntington’s Disease,” Annals NY Acad Sci 1201 (2010): 8-12.
  20. Eastman P, “Investigators Focus on Mitochondrial Dysfunction Across the Life Spectrum,”  Neurol Today April 15, 2010: 18-19.
  21. Adam-Vizi V, “Production of Reactive Oxygen Species in Brain Mitochondria: Contribution by Electron Transport Chain and Non-electron Transport Chain Sources,” Antioxid Redox Signal 7, no. 9-10 (2005): 1140-1149.
  22. Jung H S, Lee M-S, “Role of Autophagy in Diabetes and Mitochondria,” Annals NY Acad Sci 1201 (2010): 79-83.
  23. Wang C-H et al, “Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Insulin Insensitivity: Implication of Mitochondrial Role in Type-2 Diabetes,” Annals NY Acad Sci 1201 (2010): 157-165.
  24. Abdul-Ghani MA, DeFronzo RA, “Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Insulin Resistance and Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus,” Cur Diab Rep 8, No. 3, (2008): 173-178.
  25. Holloway G, “Mitochondrial Function and Dysfunction in Exercise and Insulin Resistance,” Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism June 1 (2009).
  26. Maassen JA, “Mitochondria, Fatty Acids, and Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus—What Is the Connection?” European Endocrine Disease Issue 2 (2006): 13-15. Retrieved from March 22, 2011.
  27. Sivitz W, Yorek M, “Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Diabetes: From Molecular Mechanisms to Functional Significance and Therapeutic Opportunities,” Antioxidants & Redox Signaling 12, no. 4 (2010): 537-579.
  28. Kim J et al, “Role of Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Insulin Resistance,” Circ Res 102, no. 4 (2008): 401-414.
  29. Peppa M et al, “ Skeletal Muscle Insulin Resistance in Endocrine Disease,” J Biomed Biotech (2010), Article ID 527850. Retrieved from March 22, 2011.
  30. Vermuelen R et al, “Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Performed Worse than Controls in a Controlled Repeated Exercise Study Despite a Normal Oxidative Phosphorylation Capacity,” J Translational Med 8 (2010): 93-100.
  31. Kennedy G et al, “Oxidative Stress Levels are Raised in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Are Associated with Clinical Symptoms,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine 39 (2005): 584-589.
  32. Paul L et al, “Demonstration of Delayed Recovery from Fatiguing Exercise in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome,” European Journal of Neurology 6 (1999): 63-69.
  33. Arnold D L et al, “Excessive Intracellular Acidosis of Skeletal Muscle on Exercise in a Patient with a Post-viral Exhaustion/Fatigue Syndrome,” Lancet 323, no. 8391 (1984): 1367- 1369.
  34. Behan WMH et al, “Mitochondrial Abnormalities in the Postviral Fatigue Syndrome,” Acta Neuropathologica 83, no. 1 (1991): 61-65.
  35. Plioplys  AV, Plioplys S, “Electron-microscopic Investigation of Muscle Mitochondria in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome,” Neuropsychobiology 32, no. 4 (1995): 175-181.
  36. Plioplys AV, Plioplys S, “Serum Levels of Carnitine in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Clinical Correlates,” Neuropsychobiology 32, no. 3 (1995): 132-138.
  37. Kuratsine H et al, “Acylcarnitine Deficiency in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome,” Clin Infect Dis 18, Suppl 1 (1994): S62-S67.
  38. Lane RJ et al, “Heterogeneity in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Evidence from Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Muscle,” Neuromuscul Disord 8, nos. 3-4 (1998): 204-209.
  39. Chazotte B, “Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome,” Chapter 21. In Mitochondria in Pathogenesis, edited by Lemasters and Nieminen, 393-411. New York, NY: Kluwar Academic/Plenum Publishers, 2001.
  40. Myhill S et al, “Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Mitochondrial Dysfunction,” Int J Clin Exp Med 2 (2009): 1-16.
  41. Nicholson G, Ellithorpe R, “Lipid Replacement and Antioxidant Nutritional Therapy for Restoring Mitochondrial Function and Reducing Fatigue in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Other Fatiguing Illnesses,” J CFS 13, no. 1 (2006): 57-68.
  42. Bazelmans E et al, “Impact of a Maximal Exercise Test on Symptoms and Activity in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.” J Psychosom Res 59, no. 4 (2005): 201-208.
  43. Van Ness J et al, “Postexertional Malaise in Women with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome,” J Womens Health 19, no. 2 (2010): 239-244.
  44. Jammes Y et al, “Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Assessment of Increased Oxidative Stress and Altered Muscle Excitability in Response to Incremental Exercise,” Journal of Internal Medicine 257 (2005): 299-310.
  45. VanNess J et al,  “Diminished Cardiopulmonary Capacity During Post-Exertional Malaise,” J CFS 14, no. 2 (2007): 77-85.
  46. Wikipedia (2011). “ Muscle Fatigue.” Retrieved March 28, 2011.
  47. Sweet DE, “Metabolic Complications of Antiretroviral Therapy,” Top HIV Med 13, no. 2 (2005): 70-74.
  48. Lane RJM et al, “Muscle Fibre Characteristics and Lactate Responses to Exercise in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome,” J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 64 (1998): 362-367.
  49. Roth SM, “Why does lactic acid build up in muscles? And why does it cause soreness?” Sci Amer Jan 23, 2006. Retrieved March 28, 2011.
  50. DiMauro S et al, “Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathies: Therapeutic Approach,” Annals NY Acad Sci 1011 (2004): 232-245.
  51. Personal communication from Donald Johns, M.D. when he was chairperson of Neurology at Beth Israel-Deaconess Hospital in Boston, MA.
  52. Genova ML et al, “The Mitochondrial Production of Reactive Oxygen Species in Relation to Aging and Pathology,” Annals NY Acad Sci 1011 (2004): 86-100.
  53. Meng S-J, Yu L-J, “Oxidative Stress, Molecular Inflammation and Sarcopenia,” Int J Mol Sci 11 (2010): 1509-1526.
  54. Dinarello CA, “Interleukin 1 and Its Biologically Related Cytokines.” In Advances in Immunology Vol 44, edited by Frank Dixon, 153-205. New York, NY: Academic Press Inc, 1989.
  55. Dinarello CA, Cannon JG, “Interleukin 1.” In Progress in Immunology VI edited by B Cinader and RG Miller, 449-457. Orlando, FL: Academic Press Inc, 1986.
  56. Hendler SS and Rorvik D, editors. PDR for Nutritional Supplements, 1st edition. Montvale, NJ: Thomson PDR, 2001.
  57. Mukhopadhyay A, Weiner H, “Delivery of Drugs and Macromolecules to Mitochondria,” Adv Drug Deliv Rev 59, no. 8 (2007): 729-738.
  58. Smith RAJ et al, “Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidants in the Treatment of Disease,” Annals NY Acad Sci 1147 (2008): 105-111.
  59. Jason LA et al, “The Energy Envelope Theory and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome,” AAOHN J 56, no. 5 (2008): 189-195.
  60. Jason LA et al, “Provision of Social Support to Individuals with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome,” J Clin Psychol 66, no.3 (2010) : 249-58.
  61. Brown M et al, “The Role of Changes in Activity as a Function of Perceived Available and Expended Energy in Nonpharmacological Treatment Outcomes for ME/CFS,” J Clin Psychol 67, no. 3 (2011):253-60.
  62. Jason LA, Benton M, “The Impact of Energy Modulation on Physical Functioning and Fatigue Severity Among Patients with ME/CFS,” Patient Educ Couns 77, no. 2 (2008): 237-241.
  63. Personal observation by the author, who has had CFS/ME since 1957.
  64. Jason LA et al, “CFS Prevalence and Risk Factors over Time,” Health Psychol 11 ( 2011) epub.
  65. Friedberg F et al, “Symptom Patterns in Long-Duration Chronic Fatigue Syndrome,” J Psychosomatic Research 48 (2000): 59-68.
  66. Singh U, Jialil I, “Alpha-Lipoic Acid Supplementation and Diabetes,” Nutr Rev 66, no. 11 (2008): 646-657.
  67. Morré D et al, “Surface Oxidase and Oxidative Stress Propagation in Aging,” J Experimental Biol 203 (2000): 1513-1521.
  68. Maes M et al, “Coenzyme Q10 Deficiency in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) is Related to Fatigue, Autonomic and Neurocognitive Symptoms and is Another Risk Factor Explaining the Early Mortality in ME/CFS Due to Cardiovascular Disorder,” Neuro Endocrinol Lett 30, no.4 (2009): 470-6.
  69. Kowaltowski AJ, Vercesi AE., “Mitochondrial Damage Induced by Conditions of Oxidative Stress,” Free Radic Biol Med 26, no.3-4 (1999): 463-71.
  70. Personal communication from Fred Hochberg, MD, a neurologist at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston and professor of the Harvard Medical School.
  71. Killilea DW, Ames BN, “Magnesium Deficiency Accelerates Cellular Senescence in Cultured Human Fibroblasts,” Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105 (2008): 5768-5773.
  72. Bonakdar RA, Guarneri E, “Co-Enzyme Q-10,” Am Fam Physician 72, no.6 (2005): 1065-1070.
  73. Wray DW et al, “Antioxidants and Aging: NMR-based Evidence of Improved Skeletal Muscle Perfusion and Energetics,” Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 297 (2009): H1870-H1875.
  74. Choi E-Y, Cho Y-O, “Effect of Vitamin B-6 Deficiency on Antioxidative Status in Rats with Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress,” Nutrition Res Practice 3, no. 3 (2009): 208-211.
  75. Wolf  B, Feldman GL, “The Biotin Dependent Carboxylase Deficiencies,” Am J Hum Genet 34 (1982): 699-718.
  76. Roth KS, “Biotin in Clinical Medicine,” Am J Clin Nutri 34 (1981): 1967-1974.
  77. Adhihetty PJ, Flint MF, “Creatine and Its Potential Therapeutic Value for Targeting Cellular Energy Impairment in Neurodegenerative Diseases,” Neuromolecular Med 10, no. 4 (2008): 275-290.
  78. Young JF et al, “Creatine-Induced Activation of Antioxidative Defense in Myotube Cultures Revealed by Exploratory NMR-based Metabomics and Proteomics,” JISSN 2010: 7-9.
  79. Naviaux R, “A Primary Care Physician’s Guide: The Spectrum of Mitochondrial Disease,” Exceptional Parent Magazine 27, no. 8 (1997). Retrieved from on March 31, 2011.
  80. Anecdotal evidence from CFS/ME patients and description of information from the PDR as explained in our article "Review of Nutritional Supplements Used for CFS/ME/FM."
  81. Recommended by Charles Lapp MD and other ME/CFS specialists as explained in our article "Supplements."
  82. St. Amand P, “The Use of Guaifenesin in Fibromyalgia,” Fibromyalgia Treatment Center, June%202009.pdf. Retrieved April 3, 2011.
  83. Wikipedia (2011). “Guaifenesin.” Retrieved April 3, 2011.
  84. Maes M, Twisk FNM, “Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Harvey and Wessley’s (Bio)psychosocial Model Versus a (Bio)psychosocial Model Based on Inflammatory and Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress Pathways,” BMC Medicine 8 (2010): 35-48.
  85. Lapp C, “Stepwise Approach to Fibromyalgia and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome,” Pro Health Library 2002. Retrieved April 3, 2011.


Health care providers might also want to consult the 2014 ME/CFS: A Primer for Clinical Practitioners.